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Built: 1893 | Chicago, Illinois
While Japan had built traditional tea houses at previous international fairs, the Ho-O-den represented the country's first construction of a full Japanese Pavillion at the Chicago World's Fair.
The design wowed American fairgoers with its exotic and elegant style. Among those most notably influenced was American Architect Frank Lloyd Wright. An admirer of Japanese art, Wright would carry the added experience of this pavillion with him throughout his career.
The Ho-O-den (Phoenix Pavillion) was based on a hall on the Byodo-in Temple, and made up of three annexes.
Built: 1894 | Buffalo, New York
The Guaranty Building, which is now called the Prudential Building, was designed by Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler, and built in Buffalo, New York.
Sullivan's design for the building was based on his belief that "form follows function". He and Adler divided the building into four zones. The basement was the mechanical and utility area. Since this level was below ground, it did not show on the face of the building. The next zone was the ground-floor zone which was the public areas for street-facing shops, public entrances and lobbies. The third zone was the office floors with identical office cells clustered around the central elevator shafts. The final zone was the terminating zone, consisting of elevator equipment, utilities and a few offices.
The supporting steel structure of the building was embellished with terra cotta blocks. Different styles of block delineated the three visible zones of the building. Sullivan was quoted as saying, "It must be every inch a proud and soaring thing, rising in sheer exultation that from bottom to top it is a unit without a single dissenting line.
Built: 1924 | Los Angeles, California
The Samuel and Harriet Freeman House is one of the three textile-block houses designed by Frank Lloyd Wright for the Hollywood Hills in 1924. While all three homes are beautiful and dramatic, the Freeman House has been described as the clearest expression of the design rationale which underlies Wright's development of the textile block construction system: a new technology and architectural vocabulary for the Southwest.
The Freeman House is among Wright's most interesting and enchanting small residences; the living room has been called by several writers one of his best rooms. Placing the house in context, it marks a major transition in Wright's work and plays a clear role in the development of modern architecture in Southern California.
The Freemans celebrated their house as one of the centers of avant-garde artistic and political activity in Los Angeles from the 1920s virtually until the 1980s. Visitors and resident guests included Edward Weston, Martha Graham, Galka Sheyer, Jean Negulesco, Richard Neutra, Xavier Cugat, and Clark Gable. Through its life as a "Salon", encouraged by Harriet's love of the arts, and the subsequent involvement of other major architects, including Rudolph Schindler and John Lautner, this architectural jewel constitutes a unique record of the cultural, social and political history of Los Angeles.
Harriet Freeman arranged the gift of the house to the School of Architecture at the University of Southern California so as to protect and preserve a national landmark. After 61 proud years of residence by the couple who built it, the Freeman House came into the possession of the School of Architecture in 1986.
Built: 1926 | Newport Beach, California
The Lovell Beach House is located on the Balboa Peninsula in Newport Beach, California. The building was completed in 1926 and is now recognized as one of the most important works by architect Rudolf Schindler, second only to the Schindler House, built four years earlier for his family as a show house and studio. Both of these early houses by Schindler are considered landmarks of early modern architecture in America.
The residence is on the ocean front, not far from The Wedge at Newport Harbor, in a tightly packed neighborhood of buildings. The house is sheltered from the street on the west side by raising the living quarters above the ground level. The open space below reveals the reinforced concrete frames that were formed in the shape of a figure 8. Two stairways pass through the openings in the frames leading to the kitchen and the main entry. The garage is on the north side of the ground floor and the garden is on the south side, between the house and the beach.
The interior is arranged around a two-story living/dining room, with full height, curtain wall windows on the east and south side facing the ocean. The kitchen and breakfast area are located on the north side of the first floor, with a terrace on the ocean side over the garden. Lamps and built-in furniture were provided as part of the original design. Bedrooms on the second floor are connected by a corridor overlooking the main living room. Each of the bedrooms originally had access to an open sleeping porch, but these were enclosed by Schindler in 1928.
Built: 1955 | Beverly Hills, California
The Kronish House is a 7,000 square foot villa designed by Richard Neutra in 1955. The house is located on 9439 Sunset Boulevard in Beverly Hills, California in the United States. The house was designed for Herbert and Hazel Kronish.
The Kronish House features a formal, pinwheel design. Not visible from the street, the one-story house sits at the end of a 250-foot-long driveway on a 2-acre lot. With 6,891 square feet of living space, six bedrooms and 51/2 bathrooms, the contemporary home is the Neutra's largest in Southern California. The glass-enclosed garden area os visible from several rooms. The original pool was also designed by Neutra.
The house is one of only three Neutra designs ever built in Beverly Hills, and the only one that remains intact (one was demolished, the other completely altered). It was originally built for real estate developer Herbert Kronish and his wife Hazel, who had bought the property from actress Shirley Temple In an October 1953 letter, the couple stated they did not want a design that looked like a wooden box or had a flat roof, radiant heating or sliding doors — Neutra trademarks. The house was owned briefly by Norton Simon and Jennifer Jones, before it was sold in 1999. Neighbouring estates include Madonna's Beverly Hills home.
In January 2011, the house was sold in a foreclosure auction for $5.8 million. During that summer, the new owners applied for a permit to cap the houses sewer line, which is often a sign of preparing a building for demolition. The home was in such poor condition that broker firm Hilton & Hyland was trying to sell it for its land value alone. Upon the news, the Los Angeles Conservancy, and other advocacy groups, lobbied the city of Beverly Hills to delay the demolition. Richard Neutra's son, Dion Neutra helped to lobby assistance to save the house. Among the alternatives to demolition being considered was relocating the house off site. Stavros Niarchos III, grandson of the Greek shipping tycoon, eventually purchased the house in October for $12.8 million, which was originally being offered for $13.995 million, saving it from demolition. As a consequence, the city of Beverly Hills passed unanimously a local preservation ordinance, requiring a 30-day holding period for alterations to structures 45 years or older designed by a “master” architect.
In a stroke of cultural irony, Japanese architect Masamichi Kuru studied under British architect Josiah Conder, who was referred to as the father of Japanese modern architecture. Conder was responsible for the design of more than fifty buildings in Japan, while Kuru is most remembered for his contribution to the Chicago World's Fair: The Ho-O-den (Phoenix Pavillion).
September 3, 1856 – April 14, 1924
Louis Henry Sullivan was an Americanarchitect, and has been called the "father of skyscrapers" and "father of modernism" He is considered by many as the creator of the modern skyscraper, was an influential architect and critic of the Chicago School, was a mentor to Frank Lloyd Wright, and an inspiration to the Chicago group of architects who have come to be known as the Prairie School. Along with Henry Hobson Richardson and Frank Lloyd Wright, Sullivan is one of "the recognized trinity of American architecture." He posthumously received the AIA Gold Medal in 1944.
June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959
Frank Lloyd Wright was an American architect, interior designer, writer and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures and completed 500 works. Wright believed in designing structures which were in harmony with humanity and its environment, a philosophy he called organic architecture. This philosophy was best exemplified by his design for Fallingwater (1935), which has been called "the best all-time work of American architecture". Wright was a leader of the Prairie School movement of architecture and developed the concept of the Usonian home, his unique vision for urban planning in the United States.
His work includes original and innovative examples of many different building types, including offices, churches, schools, skyscrapers, hotels, and museums. Wright also designed many of the interior elements of his buildings, such as the furniture and stained glass. Wright authored 20 books and many articles and was a popular lecturer in the United States and in Europe. His colorful personal life often made headlines, most notably for the 1914 fire and murders at his Taliesin studio. Already well known during his lifetime, Wright was recognized in 1991 by the American Institute of Architects as "the greatest American architect of all time."
September 10, 1887 - August 22, 1953
Rudolph Michael Schindler was an Austria]-born American architect whose most important works were built in or near Los Angeles during the early to mid-twentieth century.
Although he worked and trained with some of its foremost practitioners, he often is associated with the fringes of the modern movement in architecture. His inventive use of complex three-dimensional forms, warm materials, and striking colors, as well as his ability to work successfully within tight budgets, however, have placed him as one of the true mavericks of early twentieth century architecture.
April 8, 1892 – April 16, 1970
Richard Joseph Neutra was an Austrian Americanarchitect. Living and building for the majority of his career in Southern California, he came to be considered among the most important modernist architects.
Neutra was born in Leopoldstadt, the 2nd district of Vienna, Austria Hungary, on April 8, 1892 into a wealthy Jewish family. His Jewish-Hungarian father Samuel Neutra (1844 – 1920) was a proprietor of a metal foundry, and his mother, Elizabeth "Betty" Glaser Neutra (1851 – 1905) was a member of the IKG Wien. Richard had two brothers who also emigrated to the United States, and a sister who married in Vienna.
Neutra attended to the Sophiengymnasium in Vienna until 1910, and he studied under Adolf Loos at the Vienna University of Technology (1910–1918). He was a student of Max Fabiani and Karl Mayreder. In 1912 he undertook to study trip to Italy and Balkans with Ernst Ludwig Freud (son of Sigmund Freud).
After World War I Neutra went to Switzerland where he worked with the landscape architect Gustav Ammann. In 1921 he served briefly as city architect in the German town of Luckenwalde, and later in the same year he joined the office of Erich Mendelsohnin Berlin. Neutra contributed to the firm’s competition entry for a new commercial centre for Haifa, Palestine (1922), and to the Zehlendorf housing project in Berlin (1923). He married Dione Niedermann, the daughter of an architect, in 1922.